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Sero-Epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Pregnant Women from Dakar and Thie`s Regions in Senegal

Khadime Sylla, Doudou Sow, Hamadama Adbou Salam, Souleye Lelo, Babacar Faye, Therese Dieng, Roger C.K Tine

Background: Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women can result in many consequences such as abortion, mental retardation, seizures, blindness, and death. Preventive measure against Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy is prenatal screening during prenatal consultation.

Objective: This study was assessing the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women attending to Fann Teaching Hospital in Dakar and Thies regional hospital in Senegal.

Methods: An observational study was conducted at the laboratory of parasitology at Fann Teaching Hospital in Dakar and the laboratory of Thiès regional hospital from August 2015 to May 2016. Pregnant woman attending the Fann Teaching Hospital and Thiès Regional Hospital for antenatal visit provided 10 ml of blood collected into a dry container. T. gondii immunoglobin G (IgG) carriage was assessed using an indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method.

Results: One hundred thirty-two (132) pregnant women were included in this study (88 in Fann hospital and 44 in Thiès hospital). Overall, 56 samples were positive; T. gondii seroprevalence was evaluated at 42.4% (95% CI: 30-55.1). T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in 15-20 years group above (50%) compared to other age groups. Seroprevalence was more important in Thiès region (50%) compared to Dakar (28.4%). According to parity, the results of our study showed that the seroprevalence of IgG decreases with parity. The seropositivity rate was higher in the 2nd trimester 42.8%. No correlation was found between meat consumption, contact with cat, HIV positive status and other factors with T. gondii seroprevalence.

Conclusion: The prevalence of T. gondii infection in pregnant women is high compared to other studies conducted in Senegal. This study showed that Toxoplasma gondii infection is still a public health problem in Senegal. Epidemiological studies on risk factors could improve the management of this infection in order to avoid complication during pregnancy.